ArcGIS Server includes the following as parts of a server-based GIS:
Web service publishing
As soon as you install ArcGIS Server, you can publish web services from your GIS resources such as maps, imagery, and geoprocessing models. You get the preconfigured services described below.
Your ArcGIS Server web services are exposed through REST and SOAP and can be invoked by Esri and non-Esri clients. Advanced developers can extend the out-of-the-box services using server object extensions (SOEs) and server object interceptors (SOIs).
ArcGIS Server includes a variety of preconfigured services that help you perform common tasks.
The CachingControllers service helps process map and image caching jobs. The maximum number of instances you allow for this service determines how many cache jobs can run at one time.
The CachingControllers service works with the CachingTools service. Both must be running to build caches.
Instead of your map or image service being heavily utilized during caching, the work offloads to a geoprocessing service named CachingTools. This service is preconfigured in the System folder when you create your ArcGIS Server site.
The CachingTools service is started by default. Leave this service running so that it can respond to caching requests. If the service is stopped or unavailable, caching requests fail. You cannot delete the CachingTools service, and you must leave its execution mode as Asynchronous.
The CachingTools service works with the CachingControllers service. Both must be running to build caches.
The preconfigured GeoAnalyticsTools service supports big data feature analysis in ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server.
For members to use the GeoAnalyticsTools service to perform big data feature analysis in ArcGIS Enterprise, REST API, ArcGIS API for Python, or ArcGIS Pro, you need to follow the instructions in Set up ArcGIS GeoAnalytics Server in the Portal for ArcGIS Administrator Guide. The GeoAnalyticsTools service is preconfigured in the System folder and is stopped by default. It is automatically started after you configure ArcGIS Server as the GeoAnalytics Server for your portal.
The preconfigured GeocodingTools service supports asynchronous batch geocoding in ArcGIS Enterprise. See the ArcGIS REST API documentation for details on the batch geocoding tools.
The geometry service is preconfigured in the Utilities folder and is stopped by default. You must explicitly start it before you can use it.
PrintingTools is a geoprocessing service that you can deploy to help you print web maps. When you develop your web apps, for example, with the ArcGIS web APIs, you can call the PrintingTools service and get a printable image of high cartographic quality in return from a map service.
The PrintingTools service is preconfigured in the Utilities folder. It is stopped by default. You must explicitly start the PrintingTools service before you can use it.
When you publish a service, ArcGIS Server uses a geoprocessing service named PublishingTools to upload the service definition file, unpack it on the server, and deploy it for use as a service.
The PublishingTools service is preconfigured in the System folder and is started by default. Leave this service running so that it can respond to publishing requests. If the PublishingTools service is stopped or unavailable, service publishing fails. You cannot delete the PublishingTools service.
Raster analysis tools
The preconfigured RasterAnalysisTools, RasterProcessing, and RasterRendering services support distributed raster analysis in ArcGIS Image Server.
For members to use the RasterAnalysisTools service to perform raster analysis in ArcGIS Enterprise, REST API, ArcGIS API for Python, or ArcGIS Pro, you need to follow the instructions in Configure and deploy ArcGIS Enterprise for raster analysis in the Portal for ArcGIS Administrator Guide. The services are preconfigured in the System folder and are stopped by default. They are automatically started after you configure ArcGIS Server as the ArcGIS Image Server for your portal.
A geoprocessing service named ReportingTools helps generate reports on the status of your map and image service caching jobs.
This service is preconfigured in the System folder and is started by default. Leave this service running so that it is available to report the status of caching jobs. If the ReportingTools service is stopped or unavailable, you cannot view the status of your caching job. You cannot delete the ReportingTools service.
SampleWorldCities map service
The SampleWorldCities map service allows you to preview the functionality of ArcGIS Server. You can click the thumbnail for this map service in ArcGIS Server Manager to immediately display it in a web app. You can also consume this sample in ArcGIS clients in the same way as any other map service.
The SampleWorldCities map service is preconfigured in the Site (root) folder and is started by default. If you no longer need the service, you can delete it from your ArcGIS Server site.
Scene caching controllers
The SceneCachingControllers service helps process scene service caching jobs. The maximum number of instances you allow for this service determines how many cache jobs can run at one time.
The SceneCachingControllers service works with the SceneCachingTools service. Both must be running to build caches.
Scene caching tools
Instead of your scene service being heavily utilized during caching, the work offloads to a geoprocessing service named SceneCachingTools. This service is preconfigured in the System folder when you create your ArcGIS Server site.
The SceneCachingTools service is started by default. Leave this service running so that it can respond to caching requests. If the service is stopped or unavailable, caching requests fail. You cannot delete the SceneCachingTools service and you must leave its execution mode as Asynchronous.
The SceneCachingTools service works with the SceneCachingControllers service. Both must be running to build caches.
Spatial analysis tools
The preconfigured SpatialAnalysisTools service supports spatial analysis in the ArcGIS Enterprise portal. The server processes analysis requests, storing the results in ArcGIS Data Store, and returning results to members in the portal website.
For members to use the SpatialAnalysisTools service to perform analysis in ArcGIS Enterprise, you need to configure ArcGIS Server as a hosting server for your portal and grant members privileges to perform analysis. The SpatialAnalysisTools service is preconfigured in the System folder and is stopped by default. It is automatically started after you configure ArcGIS Server as the hosting server for your portal.
Instructions on how to configure the portal to perform analysis are included in the Portal for ArcGIS Administrator Guide.
You can enable a sync capability on feature services, which allows clients to download a local copy of the data to use when offline, and synchronize changes between the client and feature service when the client is back online. These download and synchronization operations can run synchronously or asynchronously. The SyncTools service is used when sync operations run asynchronously.
The SyncTools geoprocessing service is preconfigured in the ArcGIS Server System folder and is started by default. Leave this service running if you have sync-enabled feature services. If the SyncTools geoprocessing service is stopped or unavailable, sync operations fail when run asynchronously. You cannot delete the SyncTools service.
ArcGIS Server Manager
ArcGIS Server Manager is the application you use to work with your server. From Manager, you can add and remove services, tune and secure your services, and organize services in folders. Additionally, Manager allows you to configure the machines and directories in your ArcGIS Server site and troubleshoot the GIS server using its logs.
ArcGIS Web Adaptor
ArcGIS Web Adaptor is an optional setup that you can install to allow ArcGIS Server to work with your web server. ArcGIS Server exposes web services through HTTP for basic development and testing scenarios, but if you want to customize the URL and port number for your site or configure security policies at the web tier, install the Web Adaptor.
For more information, see About the ArcGIS Web Adaptor.
ArcGIS Server Services Directory
When developing web apps, you may need to supply URLs to some of the resources on your server. The ArcGIS Server Services Directory is a tool that uses representational state transfer (REST) technology to help you discover information about your services and the corresponding URLs you can use for development.
The Services Directory can also be used to allow your server to be discovered through browsing or searches. For example, through the Services Directory, users of your server can access a geographic footprint of all available services. Users can also retrieve service-level metadata about your services and preview them in a web browser, ArcMap, ArcGIS Earth, and Google Earth.
You can open the Services Directory through the installed shortcut or by typing https://gisserver.domain.com:6443/arcgis/rest/services in a web browser.
REST API and command line utilities for server administration
The ArcGIS REST API allows you to script common server administration tasks such as adding a machine to a site, publishing a service, adding permissions, and so on. The ArcGIS Server Administrator Directory provides interactive access to this API. This is helpful for learning the hierarchy of commands and constructing HTTP requests to put in your scripts. Once you understand the API, you can manage your ArcGIS Server site with any tool or programming language that can make HTTP requests.
Open the Administrator Directory by typing https://gisserver.domain.com:6443/arcgis/admin in a web browser.
ArcGIS Server also installs a set of command line utilities that can be used in batch files. These eliminate the need to write any code for the most common administrative actions.
To learn more, see Scripting ArcGIS Server administration.
ArcGIS Server extensions allow you to add capabilities to your system. In many cases the extensions have separate desktop and server offerings. For a list of available extensions, see ArcGIS Server capabilities and extensions.