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Services and the ArcGIS Pro service runtime

ArcGIS Server web services transform the maps you author in desktop apps into web GIS resources.

The back-end structure of web services published from ArcGIS Pro are fundamentally different from those published from ArcMap. This structure, called a service runtime, determines the functions available in a service. Many newer capabilities of web services, such as the ability to use shared instances, are only supported by the ArcGIS Pro service runtime.


This difference in service runtime applies to ArcGIS Server web services only; it does not apply to hosted services. Therefore, there is no need to migrate or republish hosted services.

Beginning with ArcGIS Enterprise 11.0, ArcGIS Server no longer supports the ArcMap service runtime. You cannot publish services from ArcMap (including those published using the version of ArcPy installed with ArcMap) to ArcGIS Server sites.

When you upgrade ArcGIS Server from 10.9.1 or earlier to 11.3, you will see the following behavior for existing web layers:

  • The following existing services that use the ArcMap service runtime will be migrated to the ArcGIS Pro service runtime as part of the upgrade process.
    • Map services (with or without KML enabled)
    • Feature services (map services with feature access enabled)
    • Image services
    • WMS services (map services with WMS enabled)
    • WCS services (map services with WCS enabled)
    • WFS services (map services with WFS enabled)
    • Network Analysis services (map services with Network Analysis enabled)
    • Geodata services
  • If any of the migrated map, image, or geodata services contain data that the ArcGIS Pro runtime does not support, the layers will be removed from the service when you upgrade.
  • Geocode and geoprocessing services that use the ArcMap service runtime will not function until you migrate or republish them.

The following sections summarize the process of getting your staff and web services ready. If you don't migrate or republish services that use the ArcMap service runtime before you upgrade, some of those services will no longer function after you upgrade the ArcGIS Server site.

Transition publishers to ArcGIS Pro

Publish all new ArcGIS Server web services from ArcGIS Pro. That means publishers in your organization need installations of ArcGIS Pro and time to learn that product if they are not already familiar with it.

Learn more about service publishing in ArcGIS Pro

Republish services that cannot be migrated

The following service types cannot be migrated. You must author them in ArcGIS Pro and publish new services for them to use the ArcGIS Pro service runtime. Links are provided to more information about publishing these services.

Service typeHelp to publish from ArcGIS Pro

Geoprocessing service

Publish web tools in ArcGIS Pro (to publish to a federated server)

Publish a geoprocessing service in ArcGIS Pro

Geocode service

Share a locator (to publish to a federated server)

Publish a geocode service (to publish to a stand-alone ArcGIS Server site)


Only locators created using the Create Locator or Create Feature Locator geoprocessing tools are supported.

Services that contain layer types that the ArcGIS Pro runtime does not support, such as raster catalogs, time-enabled layers created by the Tracking Analyst extension, Schematics layers that have schematic capabilities enabled, and data stored in IBM Informix or IBM Db2 for z/OS.


To use temporal data that was stored in a tracking layer, you must migrate the layers to the ArcGIS Pro service runtime. To do this, you must create a new ArcGIS Pro map project, re-import the source data, and set time properties to visualize the data properly.

For an overview of ArcGIS Pro temporal capabilities, see Get started with time.

Additional temporal and track-based analysis tools are also provided with the Geoanalytics Desktop toolbox.


For cached map and image services that contain unsupported layer types, you don't have to re-create the cache. You can delete the service that uses the ArcMap service runtime and publish a service from ArcGIS Pro that references the existing cache.

When you publish the service from ArcGIS Pro, the service must have the same name as the old service and it must reference the same data as the old service. When you publish, choose the Using an existing cache option and choose the directory that contains the existing cache, as described in the ArcGIS Pro help pages in the next column.

Configure a map service

Migrate a raster catalog to a mosaic dataset

Configure an image service

About network diagrams

ArcGIS Workflow Manager (Classic) services

Run the Publish Workflow Service geoprocessing tool from ArcGIS Pro 2.9.

Migrate SOEs and SOIs

If any of the services you migrated or republished were using custom server object extensions (SOEs) or server object interceptors (SOIs), you must migrate the SOEs and SOIs from ArcObjects SDK to ArcGIS Enterprise SDK before you can add them back to the ArcGIS Pro runtime services. See the Migrating ArcObjects SOEs and SOIs to ArcGIS Enterprise SDK blog post for more information.